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Gluck introduced more drama by using simpler recitative and cutting the usually long da capo aria. His later operas have half the length of a typical baroque opera.
The strong influence of French opera encouraged Gluck to move to Paris in November Fusing the traditions of Italian opera and the French with rich chorus into a unique synthesis, Gluck wrote eight operas for the Parisian stage.
Though he was extremely popular and widely credited with bringing about a revolution in French opera, Gluck's mastery of the Parisian operatic scene was never absolute, and after the poor reception of his Echo et Narcisse , he left Paris in disgust and returned to Vienna to live out the remainder of his life.
Gluck's earliest known ancestor is his great-grandfather, Simon Gluckh von Rockenzahn, whose name is recorded in the marriage contract of his son, the forester Johann Hans Adam Gluck c.
Gluck's father, Alexander, was born in Neustadt an der Waldnaab on 28 October ,  one of four sons of Hans Adam Gluck who became foresters or gamekeepers.
About Gluck's mother, Maria Walburga, almost nothing is known, including her surname, but she probably grew up in the same area as she was named after Saint Walburga , the sister of Saint Willibald , the first bishop of nearby Eichstätt.
Although there is no documentary record with Gluck's birthdate at the time of his birth, he himself gave it as 2 July on an official document requested by Paris that he signed in in Vienna in the presence of the French ambassador Emmanuel Marie Louis de Noailles.
This has long been the commonly accepted date. The church in Weidenwang was consecrated to Saint Willibald as was the entire Eichstätt diocese to which it belonged , and the name Willibald is frequently found in the baptismal register, often as a second name.
No documents contemporary with Gluck's life use the name Willibald. Only in the 19th century did scholars begin using it to distinguish the composer from his father's brother Johann Christoph, born in , whose baptism had earlier been confused with that of the composer.
He obtained additional employment in the vicinity of Weidenwang in as a forester in the service of Seligenporten Monastery, and after , also with Plankstetten Abbey.
In Alexander Gluck was cited for poor performance and warned he might be terminated. The Alsatian painter Johann Christian von Mannlich relates in his memoirs, published in , that Gluck told him about his early life in He quotes Gluck as saying:.
My father was forest master at N In my homeland everyone is musical; music is taught in the schools, and in the tiniest villages the peasants sing and play different instruments during High Mass in their churches.
As I was passionate about the art, I made rapid progress. I played several instruments and the schoolmaster, singling me out from the other pupils, gave me lessons at his house when he was off duty.
I no longer thought and dreamt of anything but music; the art of forestry was neglected. In or , when Gluck was 13 or 14, he went to Prague.
Most now feel it is more likely that the object of Gluck's travels was not Vienna but Prague. Gluck eventually left Prague without taking a degree, and vanishes from the historical record until Philipp Hyazinth Lobkowitz, Gluck's father's employer, died on 21 December , and his successor, his brother Georg Christian Lobkowitz , is thought to have been Gluck's employer in Vienna from to Two operas with texts Gluck himself was later to set were performed during this period: Antonio Caldara 's La clemenza di Tito and Le cinesi It is likely that the Lobkowitz family introduced Gluck to the Milanese nobleman Prince Antonio Maria Melzi, who engaged Gluck to become a player in his orchestra in Milan.
The year-old prince married the year-old Maria Renata, Countess of Harrach, on 3 January , and not long after returned with Gluck to Milan. According to the music historian Daniel Heartz , there has been considerable controversy concerning Gluck's native language.
His German biographer Max Arend objected that not a single letter written in Czech can be found, to which Jacques-Gabriel Prod'homme countered that "no letters written by Liszt in Hungarian were known either, but does this make him a German?
In Gluck arrived in Milan, and was introduced to Giovanni Battista Sammartini , who, according to Giuseppe Carpani , taught Gluck "practical knowledge of all the instruments".
Sammartini was not, primarily, a composer of opera, his main output being of sacred music and symphonies, but Milan boasted a vibrant opera scene, and Gluck soon formed an association with one of the city's up-and-coming opera houses, the Teatro Regio Ducale.
There his first opera, Artaserse was performed on 26 December , dedicated to Otto Ferdinand von Abensberg und Traun.
Set to a libretto by Metastasio , the opera opened the Milanese Carnival of According to one anecdote, the public would not accept Gluck's style until he inserted an aria in the lighter Milanese manner for contrast.
Nevertheless, Gluck composed an opera for each of the next four Carnivals at Milan , with renowned castrato Giovanni Carestini appearing in many of the performances, so the reaction to Artaserse is unlikely to have been completely unfavourable.
He also wrote operas for other cities of Northern Italy in between Carnival seasons, including Turin and Venice, where his Ipermestra was given during November at the Teatro San Giovanni Crisostomo.
Nearly all of his operas in this period were set to Metastasio's texts, despite the poet's dislike for his style of composition.
In Gluck accepted an invitation from Lord Middlesex to become house composer at London's King's Theatre , probably travelling to England via Frankfurt and in the company of the violinist Ferdinand Philipp Joseph von Lobkowitz, the son of Phillip Hyacinth.
The timing was poor, as the Jacobite Rebellion had caused much panic in London, and for most of the year, the King's Theatre was closed.
Six trio sonatas were the immediate fruits of his time. Gluck's two London operas, La caduta de' giganti and Artamene eventually performed in , borrowed much from his earlier works.
Gluck performed works by Galuppi and Lampugnani , who both had worked in London. A more long-term benefit was exposure to the music of Handel — whom he later credited as a great influence on his style — and the naturalistic acting style of David Garrick , an English theatrical reformer.
On 25 March, shortly after the production of Artamene , Handel and Gluck together gave a concert in the Haymarket Theatre consisting of works by Gluck and an organ concerto by Handel, played by the composer.
The years and brought Gluck two highly prestigious engagements. First came a commission to produce an opera for Pillnitz , performed by Pietro Mingotti 's troupe, to celebrate a royal double wedding that would unite the ruling families of Bavaria and Saxony.
Le nozze d'Ercole e d'Ebe , a festa teatrale , borrowed heavily from earlier works, and even from Gluck's teacher Sammartini.
The success of this work brought Gluck to the attention of the Viennese court, and, ahead of such a figure as Johann Adolph Hasse , he was selected to set Metastasio's La Semiramide riconosciuta to celebrate Maria Theresa 's birthday.
Vittoria Tesi took the title role. On this occasion Gluck's music was completely original, but the displeasure of the court poet, Metastasio, who called the opera " archvandalian music", probably explains why Gluck did not remain long in Vienna despite the work's enormous popular success it was performed 27 times to great acclaim.
For the remainder of and Gluck travelled with Mingotti's troupe, contracting a venereal disease from the prima donna and composing the opera La contesa de' numi for the court at Copenhagen, where he repeated his concert on the glassharmonica.
In he abandoned Mingotti's group for another company established by a former member of the Mingotti troupe, Giovanni Battista Locatelli.
The main effect of this was that Gluck returned to Prague on a more consistent basis. For the Prague Carnival of Gluck composed a new opera, Ezio again set to one of Metastasio's works, with the manuscript located at the Lobkowicz Palace.
His Ipermestra was also performed in the same year. The other major event of Gluck's stay in Prague was, on 15 September , his marriage to Maria Anna Bergin, aged 18 years old, the daughter of a rich but long-dead Viennese merchant.
The year brought another major commission to Gluck, when he was asked to set Metastasio's La clemenza di Tito the specific libretto was the composer's choice for the name day celebrations of King Charles VII of Naples.
The opera was performed on 4 November at the Teatro di San Carlo , and the world-famous castrato Caffarelli took the role of Sextus.
For Caffarelli Gluck composed the famous, but notoriously difficult, aria "Se mai senti spirarti sul volto", which provoked admiration and vituperation in equally large measures.
According to one account, the Neapolitan composer Francesco Durante claimed that his fellow composers "should have been proud to have conceived and written [the aria]".
Durante simultaneously declined to comment whether or not it was within the boundaries of the accepted compositional rules of the time.
He wrote Le cinesi for a festival in and La danza for the birthday of the future Emperor Leopold II the following year. In Gluck produced the groundbreaking ballet-pantomime Don Juan in collaboration with the choreographer Gasparo Angiolini ; the more radical Jean-Georges Noverre was involved for the first time?
By that time, Gluck created musical drama, based on Greek tragedy , with more compassion, influencing the latest style Sturm und Drang.
Under the teaching of Gluck, Marie Antoinette developed into a good musician. She learned to play the harp ,  the harpsichord and the flute.
She sang during the family's evening gatherings, as she had a beautiful voice. In Spring , she took under her patronage her former music teacher and introduced him to the Paris public.
Gluck had gruff ways, demanding strict adherence from the cast when rehearsing. The soprano Arnould was replaced. He insisted that the chorus, too, had to act and become a part of the drama — that they could no longer just stand there posing stiffly and without expression while singing their lines.
Gluck was assisted by Gossec , director of the Concert Spirituel. Marie Antoinette received a large share of the credit.
Gluck had long pondered the fundamental problem of form and content in opera. He thought both of the main Italian operatic genres, opera buffa and opera seria , had strayed too far from what opera should really be and seemed unnatural.
Opera buffa had long lost its original freshness. Its jokes were threadbare and the repetition of the same characters made them seem no more than stereotypes.
In opera seria , the singing was devoted to superficial effects and the content was uninteresting and fossilised. As in opera buffa , the singers were effectively absolute masters of the stage and the music, decorating the vocal lines so floridly that audiences could no longer recognise the original melody.
Gluck — , American radio pioneer Edgar Gluck born , rabbi in Galicia Frederick Gluck born , American management consultant Henry Gluck born , American business executive and philanthropist from Los Angeles, California.
Gluck , American professor of neuroscience Maxwell Henry Gluck — , American businessman, diplomat, thoroughbred horse breeder and philanthropist Michael Gluck born , American pianist Peter L.
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