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They are considered a delicacy in some Asian countries, where species in the Rhizostomae order are pressed and salted to remove excess water.
Australian researchers have described them as a "perfect food", sustainable, and protein-rich but relatively low-calorie. They are also used in research, where the green fluorescent protein used by some species to cause bioluminescence has been adapted as a fluorescent marker for genes inserted into other cells or organisms.
The stinging cells used by jellyfish to subdue their prey can injure humans. Many thousands of swimmers are stung every year, with effects ranging from mild discomfort to serious injury or even death; small box jellyfish are responsible for many of these deaths.
When conditions are favourable, jellyfish can form vast swarms, which can be responsible for damage to fishing gear by filling fishing nets, and sometimes clog the cooling systems of power and desalination plants which draw their water from the sea.
The name jellyfish, in use since ,  has traditionally been applied to medusae and all similar animals including the comb jellies ctenophores , another phylum.
A group of jellyfish is called a "smack. The term jellyfish broadly corresponds to medusae,  that is, a life-cycle stage in the Medusozoa.
The American evolutionary biologist Paulyn Cartwright gives the following general definition:. Typically, medusozoan cnidarians have a pelagic , predatory jellyfish stage in their life cycle; staurozoans are the exceptions [as they are stalked].
A free-swimming marine coelenterate that is the sexually reproducing form of a hydrozoan or scyphozoan and has a nearly transparent saucer-shaped body and extensible marginal tentacles studded with stinging cells.
Given that jellyfish is a common name, its mapping to biological groups is inexact. Some authorities have called the comb jellies  and certain salps  jellyfish, though other authorities state that neither of these are jellyfish, which they consider should be limited to certain groups within the medusozoa.
The non-medusozoan clades called jellyfish by some but not all authorities both agreeing and disagreeing citations are given in each case are indicated with "???
Ctenophora comb jellies ??? Cnidaria includes jellyfish and other jellies. Tunicata includes salps ???
Jellyfish are not a clade , as they include most of the Medusozoa, barring some of the Hydrozoa. Names of included jellyfish, in English where possible, are shown in boldface; the presence of a named and cited example indicates that at least that species within its group has been called a jellyfish.
Polypodiozoa and Myxozoa parasitic cnidarians. Staurozoa stalked jellyfish . Cubozoa box jellyfish . Discomedusae . Coronatae crown jellyfish .
Some Leptothecata  e. Filifera  e. Limnomedusae , e. Narcomedusae , e. The subphylum Medusozoa includes all cnidarians with a medusa stage in their life cycle.
The basic cycle is egg, planula larva, polyp, medusa, with the medusa being the sexual stage. The polyp stage is sometimes secondarily lost.
The subphylum include the major taxa, Scyphozoa large jellyfish , Cubozoa box jellyfish and Hydrozoa small jellyfish , and excludes Anthozoa corals and sea anemones.
There are over species of Scyphozoa, about 50 species of Staurozoa, about 20 species of Cubozoa, and the Hydrozoa includes about — species that produce medusae, but many more species that do not.
Since jellyfish have no hard parts, fossils are rare. The oldest conulariid scyphozoans appeared between and mya in the Neoproterozoic of the Lantian Formation in China; others are found in the youngest Ediacaran rocks of the Tamengo Formation of Brazil, c.
The main feature of a true jellyfish is the umbrella-shaped bell. This is a hollow structure consisting of a mass of transparent jelly-like matter known as mesoglea , which forms the hydrostatic skeleton of the animal.
The mesogloea is bordered by the epidermis on the outside and the gastrodermis on the inside. The edge of the bell is often divided into rounded lobes known as lappets , which allow the bell to flex.
In the gaps or niches between the lappets are dangling rudimentary sense organs known as rhopalia , and the margin of the bell often bears tentacles.
On the underside of the bell is the manubrium, a stalk-like structure hanging down from the centre, with the mouth, which also functions as the anus, at its tip.
There are often four oral arms connected to the manubrium, streaming away into the water below. This is subdivided by four thick septa into a central stomach and four gastric pockets.
The four pairs of gonads are attached to the septa, and close to them four septal funnels open to the exterior, perhaps supplying good oxygenation to the gonads.
Near the free edges of the septa, gastric filaments extend into the gastric cavity; these are armed with nematocysts and enzyme-producing cells and play a role in subduing and digesting the prey.
In some scyphozoans, the gastric cavity is joined to radial canals which branch extensively and may join a marginal ring canal.
Cilia in these canals circulate the fluid in a regular direction. The box jellyfish is largely similar in structure. It has a squarish, box-like bell.
A short pedalium or stalk hangs from each of the four lower corners. One or more long, slender tentacles are attached to each pedalium.
In some species, a non-detachable bud known as a gonophore is formed that contains a gonad but is missing many other medusal features such as tentacles and rhopalia.
Most jellyfish do not have specialized systems for osmoregulation , respiration and circulation , and do not have a central nervous system.
Nematocysts, which deliver the sting, are located mostly on the tentacles; true jellyfish also have them around the mouth and stomach.
They have limited control over their movement, but can navigate with the pulsations of the bell-like body; some species are active swimmers most of the time, while others largely drift.
The rhopalial ganglia contain pacemaker neurones which control swimming rate and direction. In many species of jellyfish, the rhopalia include ocelli , light-sensitive organs able to tell light from dark.
These are generally pigment spot ocelli, which have some of their cells pigmented. The rhopalia are suspended on stalks with heavy crystals at one end, acting like gyroscopes to orient the eyes skyward.
Certain jellyfish look upward at the mangrove canopy while making a daily migration from mangrove swamps into the open lagoon, where they feed, and back again.
Each individual has 24 eyes , two of which are capable of seeing colour, and four parallel information processing areas that act in competition,  supposedly making them one of the few kinds of animal to have a degree view of its environment.
The smallest jellyfish are the peculiar creeping jellyfish in the genera Staurocladia and Eleutheria , which have bell disks from 0. They can reproduce asexually by fission splitting in half.
Other very small jellyfish, which have bells about one millimeter, are the hydromedusae of many species that have just been released from their parent polyps;  some of these live only a few minutes before shedding their gametes in the plankton and then dying, while others will grow in the plankton for weeks or months.
The hydromedusae Cladonema radiatum and Cladonema californicum are also very small, living for months, yet never growing beyond a few mm in bell height and diameter.
The lion's mane jellyfish , Cyanea capillata , was long-cited as the largest jellyfish, and arguably the longest animal in the world, with fine, thread-like tentacles that may extend up to Jellyfish have a complex life cycle which includes both sexual and asexual phases, with the medusa being the sexual stage in most instances.
Sperm fertilize eggs, which develop into larval planulae, become polyps, bud into ephyrae and then transform into adult medusae. In some species certain stages may be skipped.
Upon reaching adult size, jellyfish spawn regularly if there is a sufficient supply of food. In most species, spawning is controlled by light, with all individuals spawning at about the same time of day; in many instances this is at dawn or dusk.
In most cases, adults release sperm and eggs into the surrounding water, where the unprotected eggs are fertilized and develop into larvae.
In a few species, the sperm swim into the female's mouth, fertilizing the eggs within her body, where they remain during early development stages.
In moon jellies, the eggs lodge in pits on the oral arms, which form a temporary brood chamber for the developing planula larvae.
The planula is a small larva covered with cilia. When sufficiently developed, it settles onto a firm surface and develops into a polyp. North America.
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Ranging from 1 to 10 cm 0. Some species can detach and resettle. Stauromedusae usually feed on small marine animals and live for several years.
Development is direct from a larva into an adult. The polyp stage is suppressed. The class Cubozoa contains two orders, Carybdeida and Chirodropida.
Together, both orders comprise about 20 described species. Although some reach a diameter of 25 cm 10 inches , most range between 2 to 4 cm 1 to 2 inches.
The jelly is rather spherical but squared off along the edges, giving rise to the common name of box jellies. The genera Chironex and Chiropsalmus, commonly called sea wasps , occur widely from Queensland northward to about Malaya.
These forms have remarkably sophisticated eyes, and they are dangerously venomous; a moderate sting can cause death within a few minutes.
In all the box jellies so far studied, the polyp stage produces but a single medusa. Through the process of budding , polyps emerge from a medusa or from another polyp.
Essentially, a single planula larva may produce numerous, genetically identical medusae. See also cnidarian ; hydroid ; medusa ; Portuguese man-of-war.
It has feet long, including the tentacles. They range in a vast variety of colors, sizes, and shapes. That is why it can be hard for the average person to know what they just saw was in fact a Jellyfish.
The diversity among the Jellyfish has been something experts have continued to study over the years. That is also why they have been divided into various group species based on characteristics.
Today there are over 2, species of Jellyfish that have been identified. The lifespan of a Jellyfish takes place in the water.