- Caesar accomplished more with his legions, particularly against non Romans, than Diocletian did with his. Aside from Caesar being one of the all. Hail Caesar: Imperiale Römische Legionere (20+Scorpion) Perfekt trainiert und ausgerüstet sind die Römischen Legionäre das militärische Fundament Rom. Roman legions formed the largest units in the Roman army. In the early days of the republic, each legion consisted of around 3, well-trained.
THE ROMAN ARMY: A BIBLIOGRAPHYThe legions of Rome were among the greatest fighting forces in history. Foralmost half a millennium they secured the known world under the power ofthe. Advance of the Roman Legions Michael Story. Musically presenting all the majesty and grandeur of ancient Rome, this original is a bold contest opener or closer. Roman legions formed the largest units in the Roman army. In the early days of the republic, each legion consisted of around 3, well-trained.
Roman Legions Page Contents VideoThe Battle of Philippi in Rome (2005 - 2007) Eine römische Legion war ein selbstständig operierender militärischer Großverband im Römischen Reich, der meist aus 30Soldaten schwerer Infanterie und einer kleinen Abteilung Legionsreiterei mit etwa Mann bestand. Die folgenden römischen Legionen sind bekannt, haben aber nicht alle zur gleichen Zeit Dieser Name kann auf eine Auszeichnung der Legion (pia fidelis) für Leistungen Yann Le Bohec (Hrsg.): Les legions à Rome sous le haut-empire. Pollard, N: Complete Roman Legions | Pollard, Nigel, Berry, Joanne | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf. The legions of Rome were among the greatest fighting forces in history. Foralmost half a millennium they secured the known world under the power ofthe.
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Main articles: Roman army , Imperial Roman army , and Roman legion. Main article: Late Roman army. Ancient Rome portal War portal.
A manual of Roman coins. Archived from the original on Retrieved Oxford University Press. The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine.
Cambridge University Press. Examples of ideas that were copied and adapted include weapons like the gladius Iberians and warship design Carthaginians , as well as military units such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers Parthians and Numidians.
This wiki. This wiki All wikis. Sign In Don't have an account? For other uses, see Legion disambiguation. This box: view talk edit. Main articles: Roman army , Military history of ancient Rome , and Structural history of the Roman military.
Main article: Early Roman army. Main article: Roman army of the mid-Republic. Main article: Marian reforms. Main article: Imperial Roman army.
Main article: Late Roman army. Main article: Roman military decorations and punishments. Play media. Vol 1. To The Present. Ernest Dupuy, and Trevor N.
War , Gwynne Dyer. The Punic Wars , Adrian Goldsworthy. Cornell "Legion GmbH. Complete Roman Army.
Studies in the Auxilia of the Roman Army. Frontiers of the Roman empire. See table in article "Auxiliaries Roman military " for compilation of this data.
New York, Routledge, pp. ISBN Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. New Haven, Yale University Press, p. The front lines would then charge the enemy; this would result in a rush of adrenaline, and the impact would hopefully break the enemy providing an easy victory.
Only the soldiers at the front of the formation would fight hand to hand; this would leave a majority of soldiers out of combat and rested. After short periods the commander of the unit would issue the order for the men at the front to step back and for the men behind to take their place.
By constantly cycling the soldiers it would keep them fresh and avoid fatigue. This granted the Roman legions an advantage the longer a battle continued.
There were several ways in which Roman legions were named and numbered. Which causes a headache for historians trying to map them Certain numbers and titles were avoided for superstitious reasons.
In spite of the steady inflation during the 2nd century, there was no further rise until the time of Septimius Severus , who increased it to denarii a year.
However, the soldiers did not receive all the money in cash, as the state deducted a clothing and food tax from their pay. To this wage, a legionary on active campaign would hope to add the booty of war, from the bodies of their enemies and as plunder from enemy settlements.
Slaves could also be claimed from the prisoners of war and divided amongst the legion for later sale, which would bring in a sizeable supplement to their regular pay.
Later, under Caracalla , the praemia increased to 5, denarii. From BC onwards, each legion used an aquila eagle as its standard symbol.
The symbol was carried by an officer known as aquilifer , and its loss was considered to be a very serious embarrassment, and often led to the disbanding of the legion itself.
Normally, this was because any legion incapable of regaining its eagle in battle was so severely mauled that it was no longer effective in combat.
When Caesar's troops hesitated to leave their ships for fear of the Britons, the aquilifer of the tenth legion threw himself overboard and, carrying the eagle, advanced alone against the enemy.
His comrades, fearing disgrace, 'with one accord, leapt down from the ship' and were followed by troops from the other ships.
With the birth of the Roman Empire, the legions created a bond with their leader, the emperor himself. Each legion had another officer, called imaginifer , whose role was to carry a pike with the imago image, sculpture of the emperor as pontifex maximus.
Each legion, furthermore, had a vexillifer who carried a vexillum or signum , with the legion name and emblem depicted on it, unique to the legion.
It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from the main camp to strengthen other corps. In these cases, the detached subunits carried only the vexillum, and not the aquila, and were called, therefore, vexillationes.
A miniature vexillum, mounted on a silver base, was sometimes awarded to officers as a recognition of their service upon retirement or reassignment.
Civilians could also be rewarded for their assistance to the Roman legions. In return for outstanding service, a citizen was given an arrow without a head.
This was considered a great honour and would bring the recipient much prestige. The military discipline of the legions was quite harsh.
Regulations were strictly enforced, and a broad array of punishments could be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them. Many legionaries became devotees in the cult of the minor goddess Disciplina , whose virtues of frugality, severity and loyalty were central to their code of conduct and way of life.
Montesquieu wrote that "the main reason for the Romans becoming masters of the world was that, having fought successively against all peoples, they always gave up their own practices as soon as they found better ones.
Examples of ideas that were copied and adapted include weapons like the gladius Iberians and warship design cf. Carthaginians' quinquereme , as well as military units, such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers Parthians and Numidians.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Roman legion disambiguation. See also: List of Roman legions.
Ancient heavy infantry unit of 1, to 5, men. This article needs additional citations for verification. They were in many cases career officers and served many of the important administrative tasks of the Legion, but still served in a full tactical command function during engagements.
The "First File" was the commanding centurion of the first cohort and the senior centurion of the entire Legion. Service in this position also allowed entry into the equestrian social class upon retirement.
Each Legion had 59 or 60 centurions, one to command each centuria of the 10 cohorts. They were the backbone of the professional army and were the career soldiers who ran the day to day life of the soldiers as well as issuing commands in the field.
They were generally moved up from the ranks, but in some cases could be direct appointments from the Emperor or other higher ranking officials.
The cohorts were ranked from the First to the Tenth and the Centuria within each cohort ranked from 1 to 6, with only 5 Centuria in the First Cohort For a total of 59 Centuria and the Primus Pilus.
The Centuria that each Centurion commanded was a direct reflection of his rank. Command of the First Centuria of the First Cohort was the highest and the 6th Centuria of the 10th Cohort was the lowest.
The commander of the first cohort of each Centuria except the first , with the following titles for the Centurions in sequence throughout each Centuria.
The Principales would be the equivalent of modern day non-commissioned officers and had the following rank structures from highest to lowest:.
A single position within the Legion. The Aquilifer was the Legion's Standard or Eagle bearer and was an enormously important and prestigious position.
The next step up would be a post as a Centurion. Each Centuria had a Signifer He was responsible for the men's pay and savings, and the standard bearer for the Centurial Signum, a spear shaft decorated with medallions and often topped with an open hand to signify the oath of loyalty taken by the soldiers.
It was this banner that the men from each individual Centuria would rally around. A soldier could also gain the position of Discentes signiferorum, or standard bearer in training.
One for each Centurion 59 , they were appointed by the Centurion from within the ranks to act as his second in command. Perhaps the biggest blow to any chances of Antony and Cleopatra claiming the empire came when Legio VI Victrix, along with other legions, defeated the enemy in the Battle of Actium.
The Victrix then went on to assist Augustus in his war against the Cantabrians that continued for almost 10 years starting in 29 BC.
The legion was then stationed in freshly conquered contemporary Spain where it stayed for nearly a century. During this time, the city of Legio was founded known as Leon in the present day.
Legio Duodevigesima, or simply the 18th, was also founded in 41 BC, again by soon-to-be Emperor Augustus. But Augustus never delivered on his promise.
Around the time when Caesar started his governing duties at Hispania, he realized he was one legion short in order to kick off his carefully planned campaign.
That is when he formed the Equestris Legion, the first legion Caesar levied personally, and one that proved to be the most trustworthy.
That is how the 10th Legion got its new cognomen and went on to be known as Legio X Equestris. The Equestris Legion was in the thick of the action when the Gallic Wars broke out.
In fact, it was involved in pretty much every war Caesar declared upon his enemies. It was the composure and bravery of the soldiers of the 10th Equestris Legion that brought about the defeat of the Helvetii tribes.
April 21, Previous article Wars of the Roses — Stay Connected. Latest Articles. Amazing facts about the Roman Empire, including the naming of the colosseum, the taxing of urine, and the worst punishments that were handed out to criminals.
Read more.Legio IV Rising City Diokletian. WK 2. The term legion also denotes the military system by which imperial Rome conquered and ruled the ancient world.